How to measure and take DOSE in a real crisis PART2

Original text from Blog of Koichi Oyama in Minamisoma City 16.06.2012 http://mak55.exblog.jp/16067763/

Trick of "Air-dose" 
Don't be taken in by the trick of Gamma ray measured at 1 meter above the ground. 
"High does" "Low dose" - so what? 
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology publishes the effects of gamma ray radiation to human health, which is measured at 1 meter above the ground, for each intensity of radiation (indicated in SV). 

When we measures air dose with geiger counter, the factor that we pays the most attention to is the intensity. 

ICRP, Japanese scientists, governments or doctors ignore the complexity of human bodies, and pretend as if we were all hollow plastic dolls. 

Brain neurons, which are most important to human, do not regenerate, unlike the other organs or muscles. 


Some people construe Sievert (SV) as a influence rate to human bodies for how many (radiation) needles stick in. But is it really true? 
Meanwhile, Becquerel (Bq) indicates the number of radiation needle released per second. It can be taken at face value. 

Radiation needles range from the ones intense enough to penetrate a body, Beta rays that remain at skin surface and Alpha rays that fall short (of ?).
Though Beta rays usually don't penetrate a body, still some of them can go through flesh or metal boards, when it has a long flying distance. 

Therefore, we can not make a simple translation between SV and Bq. 

Tohoku Electricity has a funny article on their site. It compares radiation to coins, which seems to me that they just try to say that low-radiation isn't dangerous. 

High radiation from a distance has high Bq reading and small SV reading. 
Or with a shielding material, such as a lead plate, a high Bq substance gets small SV measure. 

From my experiences, when a value is 0.1 million Bq/second, the surface does is about 1 micro-SV. 
My bedroom in Minamisoma measures about 1 micro-SV, which sounds less terrifying than 0.1 million Bq.  
Why does it sound so different? 
1 micro-SV sounds OK, but 0.1 million Bq doesn't sound fine. 
So let us think about the basic meaning of Sievert. 
Sievert is a unit for rating the effect of radiation to human health. 

We can evaluate a SV value by calculating Grey-Value, amount of energy received from radioactivity, (In this step, human bodies or organs are considered as non-organic materials), and then applying evaluation of type of radioactivity and of exposed region in a body, to the formula below: 

 Effective Does (SV) = Grey x Radiation Weighting Factor x Tissue Weighting Factor 

Grey Value = Amount of energy that material per unit mass receives from radioactivity
So energy damages human body? No kidding. 
Now you can see that SV is a mere indication created for convenience sake. 

For example, it is just like, when you get a cut, converting its danger to an amount of energy. See how strange it is.
Even when it's healed, a mark and pains remain. 

If you repeat cutting same part 5 to 10 times, maybe you will get more serious damage such as a infection disease etc. Moreover, you may not recover any more at the end, though it depends on each individual. At least, I think so. 

Basically,  when we use SV, it is assumed that a human body can keep "reconstructing" itself even when a certain part of a body is cut repeatedly, in the case of low radiation does. 

Also, lets' compare the following cases:
One radiation needle kills one cell : 1,000 needles stick in one cell at once, which causes a death : 1 needle per day for 1,000 days, which causes a cancer.
It is not about cell, but a life or death problem. 

They use SV as a psychological trick to make the dose look lower. Thus dangers are not recognized. 

In the age of long-term low radiation exposure, when damage to human health and cell destruction keep occurring, such numerical value (as SV) is merely physical but not useful in a medical sense. 

Human are not hunk of flesh, and exposure to radiation result in disfunction of nervous system, which are not taken into consideration in the system of SV. 
Another example. Please make your decision based on intuition. 

A parked car was shot by a machine gun. No flat tire, and metal/mixed metal parts were intact, though the automobile was shot though. 
Since it was a classy car of an old fashion, both fuel tank and radiator were well protected. 

However, the engine doesn't start. 
It's just like a human whose nerve is cut.

○Radiation Weighting Factor -  A crude distinction as 1 for both Gamma and Beta ray, and 20 for Alpha ray. 
○Tissue Weighting Factor - 0.12 for lung, stomach and bone marrow, 0.05 for throat, thyroid, liver and breast, 0.01 for skin surface and bone surface, 0.2 for genital and 0.05 for the rest of organs

Brain or heart muscle, which are so important, has equal TWF to throat, which is lower than stomach. 

ICRP and the other nuclear promoters have created a layer of self-defense. 
They use complex mathematics to make the damages look smaller. I guess that the scientists all know about it. 
The tool we can rely on is our intuition.
{CONCLUSION} The formula, which regards living beings as non-organic materials, does ignore the nervous system and the brain functions that controls the entire body. 

The less damage to brain cell and nerve cell, the better.
I say no to getting exposed over 1 mSV per year. 

City Mayer, do not compare the dose of Minamisoma to the other places, and say it is lower or better. 

There are many spots that release higher dose, so stop picking one low-radiaion spot to convince us that we can still live here. 


We can measure only Cesium by 1 million Bq meter. 
If we include all the other nuclides such as Alpha ray or Beta ray, the reading may be different.
Dose of radiation decrease inversely with the square of the distance. 

Therefore, it is not accurate to evaluate a damage value to the legs, knees, genital, organ function, lung, heart, thyroid or brain, from the dose measured at 1 meter above the ground. 

What if we walk directly on a million Bq/second gamma ray..?

There are some houses that have higher radiation dose at a roof than at a floor. 
Moreover, If you live in a Japanese-style house, you sit directly on a floor, which is very different from an occidental-style house. 
Those patches that children in Fukushima are wearing are not positioned at their brains or genitals. 
Getting a value by covering their whole bodies with geiger counters that indicates Grey value? It takes too long to detect a danger. 
Therefore, we need to know from where a radiation is released, in which way our body is being exposed to it, and that 50-year or 70-year effective dose is just a mathematic game which we can't refer to. 

An average person of 60 kg has 7000 Bq of radioactive potassium in the body.
Human have 8 trillion of cells, and they keep regenerating, however, will we die when we shoot our own cerebral nerves with a machine gun, just like playing Russian roulette? 

Regeneration and probability... 

After all, the most important factors when you decide to evacuate yourselves are the time, distance and radioprotection. 
It's better for you to leave Fukushima. 
We all have the right to move to another place, but we are getting no compensation. 
If there is any member of parliament reading this, I would like to ask him/her: "Do you want to reduce your life expectancy?" 

Courtesy : Koichi Oyama

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